Rate of Emergence and Mortality of Sceliphron caementarium (Hymenoptera: sphecidae) as a Result of Parasitoids to Endogenous Factors in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Keywords:Sceliphron, Nest cell, Emergence, Mortality, Fecundity, Parasitoids.
The nests of Sceliphron caementarium were studied to ascertained the rate of emergence and mortality cause of S. caementarium before emergence. Ten (10) nests of S. caementarium were taken from the various Faculties of Ahmadu Bello University main campus, located in Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria and analyzed. The greatest width of the head (GWH) was employed to estimate the size and sex ratio of emerged adult wasps. The nests of S. caementarium collected and examined from the study consists of 1-23 vertically arranged cylindrical allantoid-shaped cells. The average length and width of the male and female wasp cells was (l = 24.8mm, w = 7.0mm) and (l = 25.5mm, w = 7.8mm) respectively. The mean fecundity of the female S. caementarium from the study was calculated at 15.1 eggs per female. The sex ratio of the emerged adult S. caementarium obtained from the nests was 1 male : 1.28 female. With respect to size, the females black-and-yellow mud dauber wasp were observed to be significantly bigger than the males (p < 0.05). The highest rate of Mortality observed in the nest of S. caementarium in the study area was due to an endogenous factor 64.15% (which may be a developmental failure, pathogenic or fungal infection) followed by parasitoids accounting for about 24.52% deaths in the cells and accidental cell damage (11.32%) was the least cause of mortality in the cells.
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