Microbial Characterization and Risk Factors Associated with Abnormal Vaginal Discharge among Women in Katagum Local Government, Bauchi State Nigeria

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.56919/usci.2433.005

Keywords:

Katagum, Gynecological, Vulva, Dysuria, Dyspareunia

Abstract

Study’s Excerpt/Novelty

  • This study provides comprehensive identification of microorganisms associated with abnormal vaginal discharge in a specific population, providing a unique microbial profile for women in Katagum Local Government, Bauchi State.
  • By correlating microbial presence with socioeconomic status and urban residency, the research highlights specific risk factors contributing to higher prevalence rates, which have not been previously detailed in this region.
  • Furthermore, the extensive documentation of gynecological symptoms linked to abnormal vaginal discharge offers valuable insights for targeted public health interventions and potential management strategies within the community.

Full Abstract

Abnormal vaginal discharge presents a significant public health issue stemming from various infectious and non-infectious causes.  This study sought to identify the microorganisms linked to abnormal vaginal discharge, evaluate associated risk factors, and determine its prevalence among women in Katagum Local Government, Bauchi State.  A cross-sectional study involving 390 women was carried out at Extreme Hospital Azare.  High vaginal swabs were collected and subjected to microbial isolation using MacConkey Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.  Identification techniques such as Gram staining, biochemical tests, and the germ tube test were employed.  The isolated microorganisms included Staphylococcus aureus (40%), Candida spp.  (5.90%), Klebsiella spp (15.38%), Proteus spp. (9.49%), and Escherichia coli (15.13%). Notably, individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and urban settings displayed a higher prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge.  Detailed documentation of gynecological symptoms like vulva itching, dysuria, dyspareunia, and lower abdominal pains was undertaken.  Women aged 25-34 years exhibited a higher prevalence of microorganisms associated with abnormal vaginal discharge.  The overall prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in the studied population was 47.7%.  This study offers valuable insights into the microbial profile and associated risk factors, contributing to the understanding and potential management of abnormal vaginal discharge within the community.

References

Abebe E. A,, Olumide M, and Oke O., (2001), Syndromic management of STI: Manual for Health workers. Federal Ministry of Health Abuja: National AIDS and STD Control Programme.

Adesiji YO, Taiwo SS, Adekanle DA, Oboro VO, Fayemiwo SA, and Opaleye OO. (2007), Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy outcome in Osogbo, Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 1: 195-198.

Aduloju O P., Akinyemi Akinsoji Akintayo A A. and Aduloju T., (2019), Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy in a tertiary health institution, south western Nigeria, Pan African Medical Journal.33:9. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.33.9.17926

Asiegbu OG, Asiegbu UV, Onwe B, and Iwe ABC. (2018), Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among antenatal patients at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, South East Nigeria. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 8: 75-83. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojog.2018.81010

Bitew A, Abebaw Y, Bekele D, and Mihret A. (2017), Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and associated risk factors among women complaining of genital tract infection. International Journal of Microbiology. 4919404: 18. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4919404

Brumley J., (2012), Testing a Model of Bacterial Vaginosis among Black Women, Doctor of Philosophy Dissertations, pp. 44–52.

Cheesbrough M., (2007) District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, (2nd Edition), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543470

Chenicheri M, Chandramathy K, Govi R, and Anitha PM. (2017), Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in cases of preterm labour and its effects on obstetric outcome. J Evid Based Med Healthc. 4(28): 1669-1673. https://doi.org/10.18410/jebmh/2017/326

Ghattargi S, Sheela N, and Dias M. (2018), Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in sexually active females in age group 20-45 years and comparison of Amsel's criteria with Nugent's score. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecolog, 7(9): 3478-3484. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20183431

Ibrahim S. M. et al., (2013), prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri, Nigerian Journal of Medicine, 22(2): 138-142, PMID: 23829126

Ibrahim SM, Bukar M, Galadima GB, Audu BM, and Ibrahim HA. (2014) Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practitioner. 17(2): 154-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/1119-3077.127424

Koumans HE, Sternberg M, Bruce C, Mcquillan G, Kendrick J, Sutton M, Markowitz EL. The Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the United States, 2001-2004; associations with symptoms, sexual behaviors, and reproductive health. Sex Transm Dis. 2007; 34(11): 864-869. https://doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318074e565

Li XD, Tong F, Zhang XJ, Pan WJ, Chen ML, Wang CC, Li X, Gao GP, Sun L, and Sun YH. (2015), Incidence and risk factors of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women: a prospective study in Maanshan city, Anhui Province, China. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 41(8): 1214-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.12704

Machado D, Castro J, Martinez-de-Oliveira J, Nogueira-Silva C, and Cerca N. (2017) Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in Portuguese pregnant women and vaginal colonization by Gardnerella vaginalis. PeerJ. 5: e3750. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3750

Machado D, Castro J, Palmeira-de-Oliveira A, Martinez-deOliveira J, and Cerca N. (2016) Bacterial Vaginosis Biofilms: Challenges to Current Therapies and Emerging Solutions. Front Microbiol. 6: 1528. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01528

Nigeen W, Bhat AS, Gulzar K, and Taing S. (2015), Correlation of bacterial vaginosis with preterm labour: a case control study. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology. 4: 1868-74. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20151276

Nwadioha SI, Egah DZ, Banwat EB, and Alao OO., (2010), Microbial agents of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnant mothers attending PHC centres of Jos, Nigeria. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, 2(1): 07 11.

Nwokedi E. E and Anyiam N. N., (2003), A study of high vaginal swabs in Kano Teaching Hospital:A preliminary report. Highland Medical Research Journal, 1:57-61. https://doi.org/10.4314/hmrj.v1i4.33825

Omole Ohonsi A, Mohammed Z, and Ihesiulor U. (2006), Vaginal discharge in pregnancy in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Practitioner. 50(3): 68 71. https://doi.org/10.4314/nmp.v50i3.28873

Pendharkar S, Magopane T, Larsson PG, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, Hammarstrom L, and Marcotte H. (2013), Identification and characterisation of vaginal lactobacilli from South African women. BMC Infectious Diseases, 13: 43. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-13-43

Rajshree S, Manju M, Leena S, and Vikrant S. (2014), Effects of Bacterial Vaginosis on Perinatal Outcome. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences 3(8): 2040-2046. https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2014/2100

Sabour S, Arzanlou M, Vaez H, Rahimi G, Sahebkar A, and Khademi F. (2018), Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant and nonpregnant Iranian women; a systematic review and metaanalysis. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 297 (5): 11011113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-018-4722-8

Singh H.O/..Singh A. Dhole T.N, and Nain S., (2015), Factor Associated to Bacterial Vaginosisin Non-pregnant Women of North Indian Population, Journal of Biotechnology Biomaterials, vol. 5:.195,

Sivaranjini R, Jaisankar T, Thappa DM, Kumari R, Chandrasekhar L, Malathi M, Parija S, Habeebullah S. (2013), Spectrum of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. Trop Parasitol. ;3(2):135-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5070.122140.

Sobel J. D,, Faro S., Force R. W. and Fox B., (1998), Vulvovaginal candidiasis. Epidemiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Am J Obst Gyn, 178: 203-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9378(98)80001-X

Tachawatcharapunya S, Chayachinda C, and Parkpinyo N. (2017), The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in 103 asymptomatic pregnant women during early third trimester and the pregnancy complications. Thai Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 25: 96103.

Uwakwe KA, Iwu AC, Obionu CN, Duru CB1, Obiajuru IC. and Madubueze UC., (2018) Prevalence, Pattern and Predictors of Abnormal Vaginal Discharge among Women attending Health Care Institutions in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 30 (2) 22-35

Verstraleen H, Verhelst R, Vaneechoutte M, and Temmerman M. (2010), The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour. BMC Infectious Diseases. 10: 81. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-81

Vodstrcil L. A. Hocking J. S. M. Law M. Walker S., Tabrizi S N., Fairley C K. and Bradshaw S C., (2013), Hormonal Contraception Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Bacterial Vaginosis:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, PLoSONE, 8(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073055

Zaher EH, Khedr NF and Elmashad HA. (2017), Awareness of Women Regarding Vaginal Discharge IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science 6(1): 01-12. https://doi.org/10.9790/1959-0601010112

Published

2024-07-07

How to Cite

Magaji, A., & Mahmud, Z. (2024). Microbial Characterization and Risk Factors Associated with Abnormal Vaginal Discharge among Women in Katagum Local Government, Bauchi State Nigeria. UMYU Scientifica, 3(3). https://doi.org/10.56919/usci.2433.005