A Review of Radon Concentration in Water Sources in Nigeria and its Impact
Keywords:Radon concentration, Water, Nigeria
Given the characteristics of radon, people may unwittingly be exposed to radon through water ingestion. Research on radon concentration has increased over the years due to its negative impact on the body being the major causes of lung cancer. This study reviewed twenty (20) journal publications on radon concentration in water sources (such as well, boreholes, stream and taps) in Nigeria from year the 2016 to 2023. The type of sample, sample location, devices used, the range and mean values of radon concentration (RnC) and annual effective dose (AED) were considered. From the reviewed journals, the average values of RnC ranged from 1.9 Bq/L to 88.0 Bq L-1. When compared with WHO and US EPA recommended limits of 100 Bq L-1 and 11.1 Bq L-1 respectively, all reviewed journals recorded average values of RnC below 100 Bq L-1 and 75 % of the reviewed journals recorded average values of RnC above US EPA recommended limit of 11.1 Bq L-1. The mean AED reported is within the range of 0.02 mSv yr-1 and 92 mSv yr-1 with 30 % above the recommended limit of 0.1mSv yr-1. This result shows that the majority of the radon concentration in water sources in Nigeria reported may not pose any immediate health risk. However, there is a need for continuous monitoring and protective measures to be taken.
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