The Effects of Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Invasion on the Growth of Indigenous Flora in Katsina State, Northwest Nigeria


  • Bello Musawa Bello Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda, P.M.B 1012 Zamfara State, Nigeria.
  • Khalid Tukur Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda, P.M.B 1012 Zamfara State, Nigeria.
  • Mustapha Muhammad Sani Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda, P.M.B 1012 Zamfara State, Nigeria.
  • Isyaku Abubakar Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and technology Complex, P.M.B 186, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Mukhtar Abubakar Lawal Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Kaura-Namoda, P.M.B 1012 Zamfara State, Nigeria.



Effects, Neem, invasion, indigenous flora


Invasive or alien species are increasing in number, extent, and influence worldwide.  They are both passengers and drivers of change, and they interact synergistically with many other facets of global change.  The Neem trees have been grown successfully in all parts of Nigeria.  Neem has become an invasive and naturalized species in various parts of Nigeria in quite diverse ecological and climatic conditions.  The tree is adaptable to a wide range of climatic and topographic conditions.  The objective of the study is to determine the effect of neem invasion on the growth of indigenous flora in Katsina state.  The information on farmers' perception about Neem tree was obtained using semi semi-structured questionnaire.  About 200 informants were interviewed.  Direct counting of trees was conducted to determine the effect of Neem invasion on the indigenous flora.  A total of 58 species of trees belonging to 47 genera within 15 families, of which family Fabaceae has the highest number of tree species, 44 affected by neem invasion in the study area.  The result showed the effects of having neem in the farms. Some of the respondents believed that Neem spread easily and nothing grew near it.  Others believed that it's difficult to kill and grow back easily.  The result indicated a number of tree species found in farms compared to the number of farmers needed for that tree. A lot of farmers preferred indigenous trees then Neem in their farms.  In conclusion, in Katsina and from casual observations in the study areas, we have found that Neem is spreading in a way characteristic of an invasive species.  They are spread by birds and other animals, becoming numerous under native trees.  The trees themselves may become 'weeds.  Since farmers in Katsina do not like Neem in their fields, it can be considered a weed, and because it can reproduce in large quantities at a considerable distance from the parent plant, it is, by definition, an invasive plant.


Metrics Loading ...


Abaje, I. B., Ati, O. F., and Iguisi, E. O. (2012). Changing climatic scenarios and strategies for drought adaptation and mitigation in the Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zone of Nigeria. Climate change and sustainable development in Nigeria, 99-121

Abaje, I. B., Ndabula, C and Garba, A. H. (2014) Is the Changing Rainfall Patterns of Kano State and its Ad-verse Impacts an Indication of Climate Change? European Scientific Journal, 10 (2), 192-206.

Abba Halima Mohammed, Sawa Fatima Binta Jahun, Gani Alhassan Mohammed, Abdul Suleiman Dangana (2015). Herbaceous Species Diversity in Kanawa Forest Reserve (KFR) in Gombe State, Nigeria. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015, pp. 140-150.

Abdullahi, M.B (2010). Phytosociological Studies and Community Rural Appraisal Towards Biodiversity Conservation in Yankari Game Reserve, Bauchi State, Nigeria. An unpublished Ph.D Thesis. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria, pp 99

Atiku, M, and Bello, A.G (2011). Diversity of herbaceous plants in Wassaniya Forest Reserve of Sokoto State, Nigeria.Forestry Association of Nigeria, Conference paper. pp 438-443

Bationo, B. A., Yelemou, B., and Ouedraogo, S. J. (2004). Le Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), une espèce exotique adoptée par les paysans du centre-ouest du Burkina Faso. Bois and Forets Des Tropiques, 282(282), 5-10.

Bello A., Khan A.A., Umaru A.M., Aliero A.A., Shinkafi B.Y. (2010). Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf litter on growth of cowpea and millet. Katsina Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 2(1):152- 155. B

Bello, A., Jamaladdeen, S., Elder, M. T., Yaradua, S. S., Kankara, S. S., Wagini, N. H., and Muasya, M. (2019). Threatened medicinal and economic plants of the Sudan Savanna in Katsina State, Northwestern Nigeria. Bothalia-African Biodiversity and Conservation, 49(1), 1-17.

Bergner, R. (1998). Agroforestry Manual: A Field Guide to Agroforestry Extension Workers, Fifth Edition. Peace Corps, the Gambia. 132pp

Bernard, H. R. (1994). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Borokini TI (2011) Invasive alien plant species in Nigeria and their effects on biodiversity conservation. Trop Conserv Sci 4: 103-110.

Christian JM, Wilson SD (1999) Long-term ecosystem impacts of an introduced grass in the northern Great Plains. Ecology 80: 2397-2407.[2397:LTEIOA]2.0.CO;2

D'Antonio CM, Hughes RF, Mack M, Hitchcock D, Vitousek PM (1998) Response of native species to the removal of non-native grasses in a Hawaiian woodland. J Veg Sci 9: 699-712.

Elizabeth AK (2011). Patterns of Woody Plant Species Richness, Diversity and Structure along a Disturbance Gradient in the AtiwaRange Forest Reserve, Eastern Region, Ghana. Thesis Presented to the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. pp. 22-23.

Elteraifi, Ahmed and Hassan A. (2001). Oil Azadirachin contents of Neem (A. indica) seed kernals collected from trees growing in different habitat in sudan

FAO (2006) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. FAO Forestry paper 147, Rome, Italy

Girish K and Bhatt S: Neem - a green treasure. Electronic Journal of Biology 2008; 4: 102-11.

Iheyen, J., Okoegwale, E.E., and Mensah, J.K. (2009). Composition of tree species in Ehor Forest Reserve.

Ikyaagba TE, Tee TN, Dagba BI, Anncha UP, Ngibo KD, Tume C (2015). Tree composition and distribution in Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. Journal of research in Forestry wildlife and Environment 7(2):147-157.

John N, Demel T, Wellington M, Keotshephile K (2013). Diversity, Population Structure and Regeneration Status of Woody Species in Dry Woodlands Adjacent to Molapo Farms in Northern Botswana. Open Journal of Forestry 3(4):138-151.

Judd, M. P. (2004). Introduction and Management of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) in Smallholder's Farm Fields in the Baddibu Districts of The Gambia, West Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan Technological University).

Kithure, R. K., Muchugi, A., Jamnadass, R., Njoka, F. M., & Mwaura, L. (2015). Genetic diversity of Faidherbia albida (Del.) A. Chev accessions held at the World Agroforestry Centre. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 24(4), 219-230.

Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz, FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10: 689-710.[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2

Maragathavalli S, Brindha S, Kaviyarasi NS, Annadurai B and Gangwar SK: Antimicrobial activity in leaf extracts of Neem. International Jour Sci and Nat 2012; 3(1): 110-13

Mathieu, G., and Meissa, D. (2007). Traditional leafy vegetables in Senegal: Diversity and medicinal uses. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 4(4), 469-475.

Maydell, H. J. (1990). Trees and Shrubs of the Sahel. Verlag Josef Margraf

McGeoch MA, Butchart SHM, Spear D, Marais E, Kleynhans EJ, et al. 2010. Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses. Divers. Distrib. 16:95- 108 5.

McNeely JA, Mooney HA, Neville LE, Schei P, Waage JK, eds. 2001. Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. Gland, Switz./Cambridge, UK: IUCN on behalf of Glob. Invasive Species Program

Meiners SJ, Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML (2001) Effects of plant invasions on the species richness of abandoned agricultural land. Ecography 24: 633-644. .

Millenn. Ecosyst. Assess. 2005. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis Report. Washington, DC: Island

Mukhtar. F. B. (2003): Introduction to Biostatistics. 1sted. Samrid Publishers, Nigeria Pp 152.

Musawa B.B., Bello A. and Tukur A. M. (2019) NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS): A potential invasive threat to savanna vegetation in Katsina State, Nigeria. Katsina Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences VOL. 10 No. 2 September, 2021 (ISSN: 2141-0755)

Nandal, D. P. S., and Bahadur, R. (1997). Tree Management. Neem in Sustainable Agriculture, Scientific Publishers, Jodhur, India. 266pp, 33-49.

National Research Council (1992). Neem: A Tree For Solving Global Problems. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 141pp

Nwoekeabia, O. D. (1994): Annual Reports, Federal Department of Forestry, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja, Nigeria. 45pp

Ogbuewu, I. P., Odoemenam, V. U., Obikaonu, H. O., Opara, M. N., Emenalom, O. O., Uchegbu, M. C., and Iloeje, M. U. (2011). The growing importance of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in agriculture, industry, medicine and environment: A review. Res J Med Plant, 5(3), 230-245.

Onyekwelu, J. C., Adekunle, V. J and Adeduntan, S. A (2005). Does the Tropical rainforest Ecosystem possesses the ability to recover from severe degradation? In: Popoola L, Mfon P & Oni PI (eds) Sustainable forest management in Nigeria: lessons and prospects. Proceeding of the 30th Annual conference of the Forestry Association of Nigeria, Kaduna, 7th - 11th Nov. 2005, pp. 145-163.

Parker IM, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Goodell K, Wonham M, Kareiva PM, Williamson MH, Von Holle B, Moyle PB, Byers JE, Goldwasser L (1999) Impact: toward a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders. Biol Invasion 1: 3-19.

Pokhrel Bharat, Sagar Rijal, Sulav Raut and Ankit Pandeya: Investigations of antioxidant and anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica. African Journal of Biotechnology 2015; 14(46): 3159-63.

Reddy YRR, Kumara KC, Lokanatha O, Mamtha S and Reddy DC: Antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf, bark and seed extracts. International Journal of Res in Phytochemistry Pharmacology 2013; 3(1): 1-4.

Richardson DM, Pysek P, Jaro ˇ sˇ'ık V. 2006. Who cites who in the invasion zoo: insights from an analysis of the most highly cited papers in invasion ecology. Preslia 78:437-68

Sharma GP, Raizada P, Akhilesh S, Raghubanshi A (2009) Hyptis suaveolens: An emerging invader of Vindhyan plateau, India. Weed Biol Manag 9: 185-191.

Shirish PS: Hepatoprotection study of leaves powder of A. indica A. juss. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 2010; 3(2): 37-42

Singh, B. B., Chambliss, O. L., & Sharma, B. (1997). Recent Advances in Cowpea Breeding. 30-49 in Advances in Cowpea Research.

Togola, A. T., Diallo, D., S., Barsett, H., and Paulsen, B. S. (2005). Ethnopharmacological survey of different uses of seven medicinal plants from Mali. (West Africa) in the region Doila, Kolokani and Siby. Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 1: 7.




How to Cite

Bello, B. M., Tukur, K., Sani, M. M., Abubakar, I., & Lawal, M. A. (2023). The Effects of Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Invasion on the Growth of Indigenous Flora in Katsina State, Northwest Nigeria. UMYU Scientifica, 2(3), 142–152.